Types of glasses
Each concrete type of glass should carry out quite certain function. It is possible to allocate five basic functions of glass:
- a thermal protection in the winter;
- a thermal protection in the summer;
- sound insulation;
- protective functions;
- aesthetic functions.
For maintenance of these functions, various types of glasses are developed, we will consider them more in detail.
Power saving up glasses
The Thermal protection during the winter period is the most important function of glasses for the majority of regions Ukraines. As already it was told above, heat losses through glass develop of heat conductivity, konvektsii and thermal radiation. For reduction of losses of heat from heat conductivity and konvektsii, apply double osteklenie (double-glazed windows), but it gives only insignificant effect since the basic share teplopoter occurs at the expense of thermal radiation. So-called power saving up glasses are developed for reduction of this kind of radiation.
Now the power savings problem costs extremely sharply all over the world, therefore all largest manufacturers of glass, such as: Glaverbel, Pilkington, San Goben, PPG, Shott, Interpejn and others have mastered release of power saving up glasses.
Giving of power saving up properties to glass is connected with drawing on its surface nizkoemissionnyh optical coverings, and glass with such covering has received the name nizkoemissionnogo. These coverings provide passage to a premise of a short-wave sunlight, but interfere with an exit from a premise of long-wave thermal radiation, for example from the heating device (Therefore glasses with nizkoemissionymi coverings name
The power savings Characteristic is radiating ability has flown down. Under radiating ability has flown down glass (issue) understand ability of a glass surface to reflect the long-wave thermal radiation invisible by a human eye which length of a wave is less 16000 Nanometers. Emissitent surfaces (defines radiating ability has flown down (at usual glass E makes> 0.83, and radiating ability of selective glasses is less 0,04), and therefore also ability as though
Back in a premise thermal radiation.
The Reason of occurrence of radiation is covered in movement free elektronov the atoms which are on a surface of glass, and density moving elektronov. Not all the metals well spending an electric current, possess property to reflect long-wave thermal radiation.
Hence, the more low emissitent, the there is less than heat loss. Glass thus with an optical covering important emissitenta E=0,004 reflects back in a premise over 90% of thermal energy leaving through a window.
Now for these purposes it is used two types of coverings: so-called To - glass (Low-E) -
Covering and i - glass (Double Low-E) -
The First step in release of power saving up glass was manufacture To - glasses. For giving to Float-glass teplosberegajushchih properties directly at its manufacturing, on its surface the method of chemical reaction at a heat (a pyrolysis method) creates a thin layer from oxides of metals InSnO2 which is transparent and at the same time possesses elektroprovodnostju. It is known that elektroprovodnost directly it is connected with radiating ability E of a surface. The size of radiating ability of simple glass makes 0,84, and at K-glass usually nearby 0,2.
Release so-called became Following considerable step to manufacture teplosberegajushchih glasses i-has flown down, which teplosberegajushchim to properties in 1,5 times surpasses K-glass in the. Distinction between To - glass and i-glass consists in factor of radiating ability, and also technology of its reception.
I-has flown down it is made vakkumnym by a dusting and is three-layer (or more) structure from alternating layers of silver dielektrika (BiO, AlN, TiO2, etc.). The technology of drawing demands use vysokovakuumnogo the equipment with system magnetronnogo dispersion.
The Basic lack of i-glasses is their rather lowered abrasive firmness in comparison with To - glass that represents some inconveniences at their transportation, but considering that such covering is in a double-glazed window, it does not affect its operational properties.
It is necessary to pay attention also that at work with K-glass and i-glass, there is a necessity zachistki (i.e. removals) coverings in a place of contact of a remote framework (see
) To glass. It is necessary for prevention of corrosion of a covering along a surface while in service, and also for increase in adhesion of butyl to glass.
The Basic application of glasses is their use as a part of double-glazed windows, teplosberegajushchie which properties are in many respects defined by covering parametres on glass. Though we will pay to double-glazed windows attention more low, in the given section consider expedient to show dependence of heat conductivity of a double-glazed window (on an example 4х16х4) from covering type
- Glass which possesses ability to reduce propuskanie light and-or solar thermal energy is understood. Glasses the glasses painted in all weight, and also some kinds of glasses with coverings are sun-protection, for example.
Until recently values propuskanija full radiation and natural light through glass in an internal premise almost directly were proportional each other. The size propuskanija natural light sun-protection glasses decreased at size reduction pronikanija radiations as a whole. Dark colour of sun-protection glasses meant that they effectively protect from a sunlight. Only glasses of green colour were an exception of a rule.
On the action mechanism sun-protection glasses can be divided into 2 groups: mainly reflecting radiation and mainly absorbing radiation. For a surface of glasses of 1 group the thin metal layer put in the course of manufacture which interferes with radiation penetration through glass is characteristic. It is necessary to notice that reflecting layers simultaneously partially absorb radiation.
At manufacturing of absorbing glasses on the fused glass weight are put either crystals of metals, or oxides of metals which possess ability to absorb a sunlight part. In the course of absorption of radiation of glass heat up and give the most part of heat received by them to external space. Heat part, however, is told in a premise that is, of course, the undesirable phenomenon, increasing requirement of energy by premise cooling.
The Designs combining reflecting coverings and coverings with low radiating ability, are the new product which has appeared on sale. Completely reflecting surfaces of transparent glasses receive by consecutive drawing of a covering on a surface has flown down. As a rule, quantity of covering layers five from which four are layers of oxides of metals, and a working layer - silver. Silver possesses ability to pass visible light, as well as usual glass. In a case when the length of a wave is more 0,76 microns, silver almost completely reflects all radiation. Besides such glasses possess also good teploizolirujushchej ability.
In microfiltering glasses on a surface of glasses by etching or by means of sandblasting the sites having the form of microprisms are created. By means of silk-screen printing it is possible to receive almost similarly working sites. The general in them that the part of a surface of glass is exposed to processing only. At performance of operation of drawing of drawing consider sun position over horizon that corners of microprisms worked at the most minimum coal of a meeting with a thermal sunlight. When the corner of a meeting of a sunlight becomes less, the share of reflecting ability grows. On appearance microfiltering glasses a little than differ from usual glasses.
The Laminated glass (triplex) is the architectural glass consisting of two or more glasses, laminated together with the help of a laminating film or a special laminating liquid.
The Primary goal of triplex - to interfere with violent intrusion. Lamination does not increase mechanical durability has flown down, however, at destruction the laminated glass remains
Thanks to the laminated film, i.e. glass splinters remain attached to a film. Besides triplex use:
- reduces danger from scattering splinters or falling glass (glass breaks, but remains in a frame);
- promotes protection of a premise against harmful influence of ultra-violet beams (protects from burning out furniture, wall-paper, etc.);
- provides sound insulation (multilayered glass is capable to reduce effectively influence of undesirable noise).
It is possible to provide with Different kinds of laminating films almost any toning of glass. The laminated glasses are applied at osteklenii facades, balconies, windows.
the Reinforced glasses
The Reinforced glass - sheet glass with a metal grid, safe and pozharostojkoe which at a fire forms an effective barrier against a smoke and hot gases. At a fire it can burst, however the armature keeps it on a place, preventing thereby fire distribution. Glass splinters do not drop out even at formation of several breaks, and are kept on a place by armature. The reinforced glass can be applied at osteklenii factory shops, windows, lanterns, mines of lifts and facades.
Figured glass is the sheet glass which one surface has decorative processing. It happens different colours, drawings, a various thickness (4-6 mm), can have various svetopropuskaemost. Figured glass can be tempered and laminated. Basically it apply at internal osteklenii and at manufacturing of stained-glass windows.
the Tempered glasses
The Tempered glass is a glass at which by chemical or thermal processing durability to blows and temperature drops, in comparison with usual glass raises. At its destruction the tempered glass breaks up to small safe splinters. It is necessary to pay attention to that fact that the tempered glass is not subject to machining. Therefore machining should be carried out before process zakalivanija. The tempered glasses can be applied by manufacture of double-glazed windows or the laminated glasses.
the glasses Painted in weight
The glass Painted in weight is absorbirueshchee (sun-protection glass) glass at which manufacturing various substances for reception of desirable colour are used. It absorbs more than solar thermal energy and light, than usual transparent glass. The most widespread are grey and green colours, and also intermediate between bronze and brown. It is possible to make also glass and other colours. It is applied at manufacturing of facades from glass, partitions, windows and doors.
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