In given article widespread types of mechanical locks and cylinders applied in metal doors, their classification, kinds, ways of application and action principles will be considered.
One of safety bases in metal doors of any manufacturers are locks. It can seem paradoxical, but more often cost of the good lock exceeds door cost in which it is established, several times, and even 10 times. From quality, durability and durability of work of the lock in direct dependence there is your safety and calmness. Convenient and simple in use, with a nice key, but thus a high security lock - ideal, but, alas, not always a possible variant.
The Principal cause of use of locks, on those or other parametres which are not satisfying to the above described conditions, the price is. The majority of manufacturers of doors tries to reduce the price of the production as much as possible. Thereof we receive a good door with bad locks. And on expensive import mechanism many do not have not enough money.
It is necessary to recognise that import locks all the same surpass ours in the majority of technical characteristics (well and under the price), but not any import lock is better cheap domestic.
Last years in the market many locks of the Chinese and Italian manufacture which is not approaching for use in metal doors are presented. These locks, favourably differing from Russian on external registration, in the majority are intended for use in wooden doors, where loading and requirements more low. Use of these locks involves an array of problems, type of the broken off handles and failure at the most inappropriate moment.
Domestic locks too not all approach for metal doors because by their working out (which was time 10 - 20 years ago) metal doors did not exist, and designers did not consider increase of loadings at lock use in a heavy door. Locks of similar models are issued and until now. Involved with the cheapness, many firms establish them at doors because of what the consumer suffers. The basic sign on which it is possible to distinguish the lock of this class, manufacturing of all lock, or its part, (for example handles) from a soft or fragile material of type silumina is. Plastic use in the mechanic of the lock too is inadmissible.
Further we will consider the basic types of locks on their appointment, as installation and to a principle of work of the confidential mechanism.
Locks on a door Are established in the different ways. They can be cut, imposed or hung. Further dead locks, as the most widespread and reliable will be considered.
To destination locks share on two groups
Fiksirujushche - locking (the lock with handles, the bottom lock)
- Locking (the lock without handles, the top lock)
The sign first group presence of handles by which the uvula - a clamp is cleaned is Distinctive. In overwhelming majority of doors of any manufacture such lock is put. The sense of its action is simple - to fix a door in the closed position. Without this lock, at lock-out it is necessary to hold a door with a hand, a knee or … (stomach). It is meant that in this lock is and a locking part (i.e. a confidential part and a crossbar). The device intended only for fixing of a door, is called as a latch.
the Second group of locks has no cleaned uvula - a clamp and serves only for lock-out.
In the majority of domestic entrance doors two locks are used: fiksirujushche - locking and locking.
By a principle of work of the confidential mechanism locks divide too on two groups:
- Suvaldnye (or plainly - suvaldnye)
- Cylinder (lichinochnye or shtiftovye)
Level locks often, on ignorance name sejfovymi as earlier in safes almost always used locks of this group (if not to take in the account locks of the rotary coding which in the doorway are not used, and will not be considered). Actually, sejfovym it is necessary to name the lock the lock with the raised level of protection and privacy of the mechanism. Present sejfovyj the lock is obliged to work in more severe constraints, for example, the lock should open well - to be closed even after a fire. It is reached, thanks to that in its mechanism there are no the elements subject to combustion. For example, there are no springs and the details executed from a spring wire (which otzhigajutsja at heats and the functions cease to carry out). Often, sejfovym the lock, name the lock with round locking elements (crossbars) that is an error.
Kinds of keys for level locks
Suvaldnaja system of the lock the most ancient also was used in the simplified kind in the first locks invented by the person.
the Basis of its action - a set of plates (suvald) which, being built under the influence of a teeth (small beard) of a key in strictly certain positions allow to turn the lock mechanism. Discrepancy at least suvaldy with "correct" position does by one impossible lock opening. The more suvald, the it is more difficult to open the lock. At sufficient security of the mechanism from drilling, at high-precision manufacturing suvald, at their big quantity and at presence on them of special teeth (complicating work as a master key) - opening of the lock of the given type rather inconveniently even for the professional bear-hunter (the expert in opening of locks). The lack of the given system considers concerning the big key in the sizes and inconvenience in mechanism replacement (for example, in case of key loss). It is necessary to change all lock as suvaldy and a drive of locking elements are interconnected. (This problem managed to be solved to the Italians who have let out of some kinds of locks with a replaceable set suvald)
lock Opening suvaldnogo type
Such type of locks can be opened by means of special master keys. For such locks burglars use flat G-shaped plates and hooks. Thanks to difficult manipulations with them it is possible to raise all plates of the confidential mechanism. Accordingly, the more suvald, the above privacy of the lock and the is more difficult to open it. All would Seem simply, but it is far not so. Besides dexterity and sensitivity of hands, the professional should represent a lock interior thoroughly.
Cylinder system of the lock
The Cylinder system of the lock - a product of modern technologies also has appeared in the XX-th century. Locks of this type are more extended presently because of their convenience in use and replacement. As a matter of fact not the lock mechanism, but only its confidential part - the cylinder, known to the majority as a larva, in case of need, varies. This element of the lock transferring turn of a key on the mechanism is the confidential (ciphering) device working only with one certain combination of a key. At the heart of mask action the principle of forming of a combination of heights of small elements of the cylindrical form (from here, probably, and the name) lies. As well as in a level lock discrepancy at least one element does impossible opening. Privacy degree is defined by quantity of cylindrical elements, accuracy of their manufacturing, possible positions on height, an arrangement in a mask and possibility of access of a master key. There are the larvae using not tsilindriki, and plates. Such masks are more often applied in cars (a door, a luggage carrier, ignition) as they are less sensitive to a dirt and water, but thus are considered as less confidential.
A little independently there are confidential mechanisms of type Abloy (Finland). A key in this lock semicircular with oblique prosaws of different depth (such keys name - Finnish). In them the code is based on the washers rotating in the cylinder. It is kind of the lock very steady against opening. On degree of privacy it posesses one of the first places. Its selection of a key or a master key to open extremely difficultly. Easier - to break. However, it is possible only in case of absence of protection against breaking, i.e. absence freely rotating kalenoj a washer protecting from possible drilling of the code mechanism and as bronezashchity a keyhole resisting to rough blows of a sledge hammer etc., etc. Unfortunately, only "native" Finnish locks meet these requirements.
Cylinder systems distinguish on privacy degree. Distinguish three types:
Low security - low privacy: from 10 to 5000 combinations, and absence of protective elements
- Middle security - average privacy: from 5000 to 1000000 combinations, protective elements can be absent
- High security - the higher privacy: over 1000000 combinations of a key, (as a rule 2-4 million), protective elements are obligatory.
the Typical representative of the first group (Low security) can be seen in 80% of all doors at any entrance. Some models of such larvae can be opened for some seconds a hairpin or a paper clip. These are cheap locks with low accuracy of execution of the confidential mechanism. Unfortunately, the overwhelming majority of domestic locks above this group do not rise. It is possible to consider as a distinctive sign of these cylinders so-called "an English key" and "krestovoj a key" (drawing see)
the Second group (Middle security) in the domestic market is presented, basically, import cylinders of type KALE (Turkey) and "SUPERLOCK" it "YARDENY" or "GARD" (Israel) and to it similar. Distinctive feature - so-called "a key - a punched card". On a key in one or deepenings different in the size are in two ranks put. Because of them the key also has received the name.
the Third group is presented by world leaders in manufacture of confidential mechanisms. It MUL-T-LOCK (Israel), ABLOY (Finland), VACHETTE (France), CISA and MOTTURA (Italy). Cylinder mechanisms of these firms do not give in to opening by a master key which even is heaped most up - vibrating. At each of firms of leaders the technology allowing to finish quantity of combinations of a key to several millions. MUL-T-LOCK uses technology "pin in pine" - i.e. locking tsilindriki teleskopicheski settle down one in other. System ABLOY in general essentially there is nothing it is unlike, and VACHETTE has locking tsilindriki under inconceivable corners on all area of a key. Materials of which cylinders of this group are made, kisloto - and wearproof. In accessible places of cylinders all, apparently, to the burglar are hidden pobeditovye cores and balls on which drills break. MUL-T-LOCK, VACHETTE, CISA and MOTTURA use type keys "a key - a punched card", and ABLOY - "the Finnish key".
The Huge number of combinations of a key allows to do unique systems of type "MASTER KEY" (MUL-T-LOCK). In the given system, each of several neighbours, can, the key to open an access door, a door on the floor and own apartment, and thus also the lock on a transmission of the car, and any key will not approach to another's door or to a car. MUL-T-LOCK as has developed system INTERACTIV where from a key it is impossible to make a mould, and system "TRAFFIC LIGHT" - reprogrammed after use of a new key.
In metal doors of a domestic production (with our locks) basically are used the cylinder lock - fiksirujushche - locking and suvaldnyj - locking.
In the doorway of import one lock fiksirujushche - locking, but with additional elements of protection, as a rule, is put.
Well and at last some councils:
Equip the door with the alarm system;
- do not save on good locks - more expensively;
- do not advertise the absences;
- do not let in apartment of imaginary "mechanics", "electrical engineers";
- do not trust "pogoreltsam" which beg.
a source: firm "BECAME" Material
In addition on the given theme:
That such modern doors?
the Pendant sliding door
All about door loops
Choosing a steel door
Choosing a steel door - remember
Merits and demerits of a wooden door
How to choose interroom doors